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World's "bluest" sky revealed
2 August 2006A 27-year-old TV researcher who won a competition to travel the globe in search of the world's "bluest" sky has found that Brazil is the place to be if blue is your colour. Anya Hohnbaum came to this conclusion after visiting 20 different destinations on a 72-day round-the-world trip organized by on-line travel agents Expedia. But to ensure that her findings were as scientific as possible, Hohnbaum used a special portable spectrometer that was adapted for her by scientists at the UK's National Physical Laboratory (NPL). Rio de Janeiro came top of the list, followed by New Zealand, Australia, Fiji and South Africa.
Standards labs like the NPL are interested in colorimetry -- the science
of measuring colour -- because of its many useful applications. Brewers,
for example, can judge the quality of their beer from its colour, while
environmental scientists can monitor climate change by looking at the amount
of green in satellite pictures. NPL decided to get involved to ensure that
Expedia's competition made use of, and adhered to, international standards
of colour measurement. The collaboration has also helped to make the public
more aware of what the laboratory does.
The challenge for the NPL scientists, led by physicist Nigel Fox of
the lab's optical-radiation group, was to adapt a typical spectrometer
so that it would be robust enough and simple enough to be carried in a
small suitcase around the world. The equipment consisted of a Hamamatsu
spectrometer, a fibre optic cable to feed light into the device, and a
tripod. Light striking the spectrometer's grating was focused by a mirror
onto a sensor (figure 1).
At each destination on her trip, Hohnbaum was asked to point the portable
spectrometer at the sky to measure the spectrum of light at that location
(figure 2). All measurements were taken at 10 a.m. local time and in the
same direction relative to the Sun. She also had to ensure the spectrometer
was properly callibrated at each destination by shining a special LED torch
onto the device from a fixed distance. Hohnbaum then sent the data to the
NPL via e-mail before heading off to her next destination.
Back at the NPL, Fox and co-workers analysed the "spectral power distribution" at each destination, which is essentially of a plot of intensity versus wavelength. This spectrum was then converted into a set of three numbers known as "colorimetric co-ordinates", which show how much red, green and blue light would have to be mixed to recreate a particular overall colour. Two of these co-ordinates -- by convention, these are always the red and green -- were then plotted on a standard "chromaticity diagram" (figure 3).
The data from Rio de Janeiro were found to be closest to the bluest
part of this diagram -- hence Brazil was deemed to have the bluest sky.
Bay of Islands in New Zealand came in second, followed by Ayers Rock in
Australia, while Cornwall in England came bottom (figure 4). NPL says that
its measurements, which can be traced to the SI system of units, could
provide a new standard for measuring the colour of the sky.
About the authorBelle DumÃ© is science writer at PhysicsWeb
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